Unemployment falls in 22 states within the 2nd quarter; price is greater for ladies and blacks
The unemployment rate fell in 22 states in the 2nd quarter, reaching 9.3%, according to the National Continuous Household Sample Survey (Pnad Contínua) released today by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). The comparison is with the previous quarter (11.1%). Another five states registered stability. Compared to the same period in 2021 (14.2%), unemployment fell in all states and in the Federal District.
The data also show that unemployment is unequal between different population groups. Among women and blacks (blacks and browns), the rate is much higher than among men and whites.
3.5 percentage points. Alagoas, Pará, Piauí and Acre also stood out, with drops of about three points in the four states.
In the regions, there was a reduction in the rate from the first to the second quarter, with the Northeast registering the highest unemployment rate: 12.7%. The region is also home to the three states with the highest unemployment rate:
- Bahia (15.5%)
- Pernambuco (13.6%)
- Sergipe (12.7%)
The lowest rates were in:
- Santa Catarina (3.9%)
- Mato Grosso (4.4%)
- Mato Grosso do Sul (5.2%)
The Federal District, Amapá, Ceará, Mato Grosso and Rondônia registered stability.
The survey also shows that, in the second quarter of 2022, 73.3% of employees in the private sector had a formal contract, with emphasis on Santa Catarina (87.4%), São Paulo (81%) and Paraná (80.9%). %).
At the bottom of the ranking were Piauí (46.6%), Maranhão (47.8%) and Pará (51%).
Unemployment is higher among women and blacks
While the unemployment rate of white people and men was below the national average, those of women and black and brown people remained higher in the 2nd quarter of the year.
Unemployment is higher among women:
- Men: 7.5%
- Women: 11.6%
Unemployment is higher among black people (black and brown):
- Whites: 7.3%
- Black: 11.3%
- Brown: 10.8%
Despite the generalized drop in the unemployment rate in different areas, the coordinator of Work and Income at the IBGE, Adriana Beringuy says that the gap between men and women is still large.
“The drop was greater among women (2.2 pp against 1.6 pp for men), however, it was not enough to reduce the distance between them. The rate for women is 54.7% higher than that of men,” she says.
In terms of age, the unemployment rate of young people aged between 18 and 24 declined. It was 22.8% in the 1st quarter and went to 19.3% in the 2nd quarter. “It was, among the age groups, where it fell the most. But still, it is a very high rate, well above average”, says Beringuy.
Yield drops in the South, Southeast and Northeast
In the 2nd quarter of this year, the average monthly income received by workers was estimated at R$2,652, demonstrating stability compared to the 1st quarter of 2022 (R$2,625). However, this amount is 5.1% lower than the one realized in the 2nd quarter of 2021, which was R$2,794.
Compared to the previous quarter, all regions showed stability. In the annual comparison, Northeast, South and Southeast had a fall.
Difference between Pnad and Caged
In monitoring how the labor market is doing, the Ministry of Labor also publishes monthly data from the Caged (General Registry of Employed and Unemployed). This research, however, covers only contracts governed by the CLT. It is the companies themselves that fill in the information in their own system.
The IBGE’s Pnad is broader, including the informal labor market. The survey is done with interviewers, who ask a sample of the population about their work situation.
Pnad Contínua is the main instrument for monitoring the workforce in the country. The survey sample per quarter in Brazil corresponds to 211 thousand households surveyed. About two thousand interviewers work on the survey, in 26 states and the Federal District.